This page is for nursing resources and research guides housed in the Dr. Charles F. Grabske Library on the Graceland University Independence campus. The library is Monday through Friday from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.
The Grabske Library is named after Graceland graduate Dr. Charles F. Grabske, Sr., who served on Graceland’s board of trustees from 1932-1951. The library was previously located at the Columbia Independence Regional Health Center.
Nursing Student Resources
Special UptoDate Login Instructions
RN-BSN Library Orientation (7:16)
MSN-FNP Library Orientation (7:55)
Using Full Text Finder (0:42)
Intro into epidemiology (8:58)
APA Citation Guide
MLA Citation Guide
ACS Citation Guide
Summaries of Evidence
International Nursing Review
Helpful Searching Tips
Before you start searching, be clear on what you're searching for. There are a variety of methods that can help structure your question.
PICO is an acronym used for patient-centered problems based on four areas of knowledge and action:
Patient or Problem
Intervention, cause or prognosis
Comparison or Control
Outcome or results
Here's an example query: "Treatment of osteoporosis with raloxifene instead of calcium for hip fractures"
Woman with osteoporosis
Reduction in fractures:
This method is designed to make a valid, successful decision based on the skills and knowledge of the clinician as well as the values of the patient. Ultimately, the clinician/searcher aims to find clinically relevant evidence among the enormous amount of medical literature.
Levels of Evidence
Critically-appraised individual articles and synopses include:
Level I: Evidence from a systematic review of all relevant randomized controlled trials.
Level II: Evidence from a meta-analysis of all relevant randomized controlled trials.
Level III: Evidence from evidence summaries developed from systematic reviews
Level IV: Evidence from guidelines developed from systematic reviews
Level V: Evidence from meta-syntheses of a group of descriptive or qualitative studies
Level VI: Evidence from evidence summaries of individual studies
Level VII: Evidence from one properly designed randomized controlled trial
Level VIII: Evidence from nonrandomized controlled clinical trials, nonrandomized clinical trials, cohort studies, case series, case reports, and individual qualitative studies.
Level IX: Evidence from opinion of authorities and/or reports of expert committee
Two things to remember:
1. Studies in which randomization occurs represent a higher level of evidence than those in which subject selection is not random.
2. Controlled studies carry a higher level of evidence than those in which control groups are not used.